Higher Secondary is the most crucial stage of school education because at this juncture specialized discipline based, content-oriented courses are introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of general education and opt for Chemistry with a purpose of pursuing their career in basic sciences or professional courses like medical, engineering, technology and study courses in applied areas of science and technology at tertiary level. Therefore, there is a need to provide learners with sufficient conceptual background of Chemistry, which will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses after the higher secondary stage.
The new and updated curriculum is based on disciplinary approach with rigour and depth taking care that the syllabus is not heavy and at the same time it is comparable to the international level. The knowledge related to the subject of Chemistry has undergone tremendous changes during the past decade: Many new areas like synthetic materials, bio-molecules, natural resources, industrial chemistry are coming in a big way and deserve to be an integral part of chemistry syllabus at senior secondary stage. At international level, new formulations and nomenclature of elements and compounds, symbols and units of physical quantities floated by scientific bodies like IUPAC and CGPM are of immense importance and need to be incorporated in the updated syllabus. The revised syllabus takes care of all these aspects. Greater emphasis has been laid on use of new nomenclature, symbols and formulations, teaching of fundamental concepts, applications of concepts in chemistry to industry/ technology, logical sequencing of units, removal of obsolete content and repetition etc.
|One Paper||Time: Three Hours||Marks: 70|
|Unit I||Solid State||04||12|
|Unit IV||Chemical kinetics||05||12|
|Unit V||Surface chemistry||04||08|
|Unit VI||General principles and processes of Isolation of Elements||03||08|
|Unit VII||p-Block Elements||08||14|
|Unit VIII||d- and f-Block Elements||05||14|
|Unit IX||Coordination Compounds||03||12|
|Unit X||Haloalkanes and Haloarenes||04||12|
|Unit XI||Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers||04||12|
|Unit XII||Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids||06||12|
|Unit XIII||Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen||04||10|
|Unit XVI||Chemistry in Everyday life||03||08|
Classification of solids based on different binding forces : molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and Crystalline solids (e1ementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.
Redox reactions; conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).
Adsorption : Physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis: homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions - types of emulsions.
Princicples and methods of extraction : concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Group 15 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen– preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen : preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous - allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorous : preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3 , PCl5 ) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen : preparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; ozone. Sulphur– allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid : industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Group 17 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids or halogens (structures only).
Group 18 elements : Genera1 introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals– rnetallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4 .
Lanthanoids : electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids : Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
Coordination compounds : Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; Werner’s theory, VBT, CFT; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (.in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Haloalkanes : Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directivc influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).
Uses and environmental effects of-dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrochloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Alcohols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration of alcohol uses, some important compounds– methanol and ethanol.
Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenols, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic acids : Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Amines : Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts : Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Carbohydrates : Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.
Proteins : Elementary idea of a - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Hormones-Elementary idea (excluding structures)
Vitamins : Classificacion and functions.
Nucleic Acids : DNA and RNA.
Classification : Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber.
Chemicals in medicines– analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
Chemicals in food preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Microchemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible such techniques should be used.
Lyophilic sol : starch, egg albumin and gum.
Lyophobic sol : aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenious sulphide.
Any one of the following experiments :
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn 2+ //Cu 2+ /Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4 ) at room temperature.
Preparation of any one of the following compounds :
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (primary) groups.
(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt.
Cations– Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , As 3+ , Al 3+ , Fe 3+ , Mn 2+ , Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ , Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Mg 2+ , NH +4
Anions– CO 32– , S 2– , SO 32– , SO 42– , NO 2– , NO 3– , Cl – , Br – , I – , PO 43– , C 2 O 42– CH 3 COO – (Note : Insoluble salts excluded)
Scientific investigation involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.
Note : Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.
|03||Content based experiment
(One experiment out of F, G, H, I)
Any three experiments from A to E
(To be written in separate note book and submit in examination)
|05||Laboratory note book + Viva voce||05|