Biology

Biology

Elective

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Background :

The present syllabus reinforces the ideas introduced in the lower classes while the students learn new concepts besides getting an exposure to contemporary areas of the subject. The syllabus also aims at emphasizing on the underlying principles which are common to both animals and plants as well as highlighting the relationship of biology with other areas of knowledge. The format of the syllabus allows a simple, clear, consequential flow of concepts without any jarring jumps. The syllabus also stresses on the connection of the study of Biology to real life problems, use of biological discoveries/innovations in everyday life– in environment, industry, health and agriculture. The updated syllabus also focuses on reducingthe curriculum load while ensuring that ample opportunities and scope for learning and appreciating basic concepts of the subject continue to be available within its framework.

Objectives :

  1. Promote understanding of basic principles of biology.
  2. encourage learning of emerging knowledge and its relevance to individual and society.
  3. to participate in group discussions/interviews, making short oral presentations on given topics.
  4. Promote rational/specific attitude to issues related to population, environment and development.
  5. Enhance awareness about environmental issues and problems and the appropriate solutions.
  6. Create awareness amongst the learners about variations amongst the living, and developing respect for the diversities and to appreciate that the most complex biological phenomena are also built on essentially simple processes.

SYLLABUS FOR HIGHER SECONDARY FINAL YEAR COURSE

One Paper Time: Three Hours Marks: 70
Unit No Title Marks Periods
Group-A : Botany
Unit VI Sexual Reproduction (1, 2) 06 17
Unit VII Genetics and Evolution (7) 05 09
Unit VIII Biology and Human Welfare (9, 10) 07 19
Unit IX Biotechnology and its application (11, 12) 12 30
Unit X Ecology (13, 16) 05 15
Group-B : Zoology
Unit VI Reproduction (3, 4) 05 18
Unit VII Genetics and Evolution (5, 6) 15 36
Unit VIII Biology and Human Welfare (8, 9) 05 16
Unit IX Biotechnology and its Application (12) 01 02
Unit X Ecology (14, 15, 16, 17) 09 20
Total 70 180

Unit-VI : Reproduction

  • Chapter 1 : Reproduction in Organisms

    1. Asexual Reproduction
    2. Sexual Reproduction

  • Chapter 2 : Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

    1. Flower-A fascinating Organ of Angiosperms
    2. Pre-fertilization: Structures and Events
    3. Double Fertilization
    4. Post-fertilization: Structures and Events
    5. Apomisix and Polyembryony

  • Chapter 3 : Human reproduction

    1. The Male Reproductive System
    2. The Female Reproductive System
    3. Gametogenesis
    4. Menstrual Cycle
    5. Fertilization and Implantation
    6. Pregnancy and Embryonic Development
    7. Parturition and Lactation

  • Chapter 4 : Reproductive Health

    1. Reproductive Health-Problems and Strategies
    2. Population Explosion and Birth Control
    3. Medical Termination of Pregnancy
    4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases
    5. Infertility

Unit-VII : Genetics and Evolution

  • Chapter 5 : Principles of Inheritance and Variation

    1. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
    2. Inheritance of One Gene
    3. Inheritance of Two Genes
    4. Sex Determination
    5. Mutation
    6. Genetic Disorders

  • Chapter 6 : Molecular Basis of Inheritance

    1. The DNA
    2. The Search for Genetic Material
    3. RNA World
    4. Replication
    5. Transcription
    6. Genetic Code
    7. Translation
    8. Regulation of Gene Expression
    9. Human Genome Project
    10. DNA Fingerprinting

  • Chapter 7 : Evolution

    1. Origin of Life
    2. Evolution of Life Formes- A Theory
    3. Evidences for Evolution
    4. Adaptive Radiation
    5. Biological Evolution
    6. Mechanism of Evolution
    7. Hardy- Weinberg Principle
    8. A Brief account of Evolution
    9. Origin and Evolution of Man

Unit-VIII : Biology in Human Welfare

  • Chapter 8 : Human Health and Diseases

    1. Common Diseases in Humans
    2. Immunity
    3. AIDS
    4. Cancer
    5. Drugs and Alcohol Abuse

  • Chapter 9 : Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

    1. Animal Husbandry
    2. Plant Breeding
    3. Single Cell Protein
    4. Tissue Culture

  • Chapter 10 : Microbes in Human Welfare

    1. Microbes in Household Products
    2. Microbes in Industrial Products
    3. Microbes in Sewage Treatment
    4. Microbes in Production of Biogas
    5. Microbes as Biocontrol Agents
    6. Microbes as Biofertilisers

Unit-IX : Biotechnology

  • Chapter 11 : Biotechnology; Principles and Processes

    1. Principles of Biotechnology
    2. Tools of recombinant DNA Technology
    3. Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology

  • Chapter 12 : Biotechnology and its Application

    1. Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture
    2. Biotechnological Applications in Medicine
    3. Transgenic Animals
    4. Ethical Issues

Unit-X : Ecology

  • Chapter 13 : Organisms and Populations

    1. Organism and its Environment
    2. Populations

  • Chapter 14 : Ecosystems

    1. Ecosystem- Structure and Function
    2. Productivity
    3. Decomposition
    4. Energy Flow
    5. Ecological Pyramids
    6. Ecological Succession
    7. Nutrient Cycling
    8. Ecosystem Services

  • Chapter 15 : Biodiversity and Conservation

    1. Biodiversity
    2. Biodiversity Conservation
    3. National Park and Sanctuaries of Assam with special reference to conservation of endangered species

  • Chapter 16 : Bioresources of Assam

    1. Medicinal and Timber Yielding Plants
    2. Sericogenic Resources (Muga and Eri)

  • Chapter 17 : Environmental Issues

    1. Air Pollution and its Control
    2. Water Pollution and its Control
    3. Solid Wastes
    4. Agro-chemicals and their effects
    5. Radioactive Wastes
    6. Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
    7. Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
    8. Degradation by Improper Resource Utilization and Maintenanace
    9. Deforestation

SYLLABUS FOR BIOLOGY PRACTICAL: Total Marks 30

Botany Marks 15
  1. Study of the reproductive parts of different flowers.
  2. Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insect).
  3. Study of percentage of pollen germination on a slide.
  4. To study pollen tube growth on the stigma.
  5. To study fruits and seeds of any common fruit (e.g. legume) at different stages of development.
  6. To study mitosis in onion root tips (preparation).
  7. To study meiosis in onion buds (permanent slide).
  8. Exercise on controlled pollination– emasculation, tagging and bagging.
  9. Stain tissue section for nucleic acid (aceto carmine stain).
  10. To study the pH and water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
  11. Study plants found in dry conditions. Comment ‘on their adaptations/ ecosystems.
  12. To study plants of aquatic conditions. Comment on their adaptations/ ecosystems.
  13. Study of plant population density by quadrat method.
  14. Study of plant population frequency by quadrat method.
  15. To study analogous and homologous organs in various plants.
Zoology Marks 15
  1. Study and identify stages of gamete development in T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary.
  2. Study of meiosis in grasshopper testis (through permanent slides).
  3. Study of T.S. of blastula through permanent slide.
  4. Study of Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colours/ size of any plant.
  5. Prepare pedigree charts for genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, window’s peak, colourblindness.
  6. To identify common ‘disease causing organisms’ like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, Microsporum. Comment on the symptoms of the disease that they cause.
  7. Collect and study soil from different sites and study them for texture and moisture content.
  8. Study of animals found in dry conditions. Comment on their adaptations/ ecosystems.
  9. Study of animals of aquatic conditions. Comment on their adaptations/ ecosystems.
  10. Collect water from different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organisms.
  11. Study the amount of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different sites.
  12. To study analogous and homologous organs in various animals.

Recommended Textbooks

  1. Bootany Part II, Textbook for Class XII, Published by NCERT
  2. Zoology Part II, Textbook for Class XII, Published by NCERT